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Colombian Emeralds

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Mohs Scale

The Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness defines the resistance to scratching of one mineral to another. The scale was derived by the German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1812, and is the most commonly recognized hardness scale used in science. The scale is not purely linear, but ranges from 1 to 10 depending on the relative hardness of the material in question.

HardnessMineralAbsolute Hardness
1Talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2)1
2Gypsum (CaSO4ยท2H2O)2
3Calcite (CaCO3)9
4Fluorite (CaF2)21
5Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH-,Cl-,F-))48
6Orthoclase Feldspar (KAlSi3O8)72
7Quartz (SiO2)100
8Topaz (Al2SiO4(OH-,F-)2)200
9Corundum (Al2O3)400
10Diamond (C) 1500


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